Question: A post is being circulated referring to the verse(9:5) of the Quran, that it commands to brutally kill the polytheists. Is it correct?

Answer: Certain people to support their agenda, often misquote the verses of the Quran or distort its meaning, eventually using them out of context.
Same can be observed in the verse (mentioned in the question), where literal meaning has been quoted out of context.
If we read the entire chapter or even just the verses before and after it, one can easily find the above question’s claim as misleading.
To understand the quoted verse in question(9:5), let’s see what the previous verse(9:4) talks about.
Allah says:
“Except those of the Mushriks(polytheists) with whom you have a treaty, and they were not deficient (in fulfilling the treaty) with you, and did not back up any one against you. So fulfill the treaty with them up to their term. Surely, Allah loves the God-fearing.” 
[Quran 9:4]
In the above verse, it’s noted that *a treaty is being discussed*  in which Muslims are being commanded to have an *upright and just relationship in fulfilling the terms of treaty with the polytheist* who did not conspire against them and fulfilled their part of the treaty.
To brief the context, the Muslims and polytheist of that time had a treaty, which was broken by polytheists from their side, due to which a conflict erupted.
The verse in question (9:5) is referring to this conflict announcing that after 4 months, *IF they come for a battle with you,* then, fight and kill them.
It’s natural for the leader, to command the army to fight on the battlefield when there is an army approaching to fight with them. Such type of orders can be found in all prominent religious texts, the Quran is no exception.
Now let’s see the next verse :
*“And if any one of the Mushriks(polytheist) seeks your protection, give him protection until he listens to the Word of Allah, then let him reach his place of safety. That is because they are a people who do not know.”* [Quran 9:6]
The above depicts the *mercy and kindness of Allah for mankind, Muslim and non-muslim alike.* It clearly states that if someone asks for protection then, you should protect them and also take care of their safety until they reach their destination.
*Just by reading the above 2 verses (before and after 9:5), one can easily understand the context that why this command was given.*
*Islam is against the killing of any innocent individual (Muslim or non-muslim).* In fact, it is declared as a sin and compared as if the entire humankind was killed.
As Allah says:
*“..whoever kills a person not in retaliation for a person killed, nor (as a punishment) for spreading disorder on the earth, is as if he has killed the whole of humankind, and whoever saves the life of a person is as if he has saved the life of the whole of humankind..”* [Quran 5:32]
Allah not only dislikes killing but, also those who cause commotion and conflicts.
As Allah says:
*“…and do good as Allah did good to you, and do not seek to make mischief in the land. Surely, Allah does not like the mischief-makers.”* [Quran 28:77]
Apart from the above verse, there are many verses like 2:11, 2:205, 7:56, etc, where *Allah has commanded to refrain from causing any kind of mischief on earth.*
But, few people in order to create fear and hatred towards Muslims, deliberately misquote certain verses to mislead and fulfill their agenda.
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