What does Islam say about Suicide?

Answer: In Islam suicide is considered a major sin and is completely forbidden.
As Allah says:
O you who have believed, do not consume one another’s wealth unjustly but only [in lawful] business by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves [or one another]. Indeed, Allah is to you ever Merciful.” (Quran 4:29)
Allah has beautifully provided guidance in the Quran for those individuals who are going through tough and difficult times, and by which, committing suicide proves absolutely futile and gives the person the courage to face these situations.
Let’s look at a few reasons for suicide:
1️⃣ Will to live or the purpose of life is lost.
This is the reason for the majority of the suicides where, an individual loses hope for betterment and is filled with despair instead. Every individual whether rich or poor is faced with distress where some feel they do not have anything in this world while some have too much but not the peace of heart.
The Quran has guided humankind in this aspect of life (refer Quran 67:2) where it is clearly mentioned that this life is a test for every individual, and the real-life is after death.
As Allah says:
“And the worldly life is not but amusement and diversion; but the home of the Hereafter is best for those who fear Allah, so will you not reason?” (Quran 6:32)
It clearly states that we are in this world for a short period of time, hence, it does not matter what we could and could not achieve. What shall remain will only be the hereafter. If an individual has a firm belief and manages to gain such insight then, there will not be any thought of suicide to end the misery.
2️⃣ Psychological issues like depression, grief, hopelessness, loneliness, etc.
The above (point #1) applies to this as well, Allah has stated below with respect to psychological anguish:
….That is instructed to whoever should believe in Allah and the Last Day. And whoever fears Allah – He will make for him a way out. And will provide for him from where he does not expect. And whoever relies upon Allah – then He is sufficient for him. Indeed, Allah will accomplish His purpose. Allah has already set for everything a [decreed] extent.(Quran 65:2-3) 
The above-mentioned verse is full of hope and patience that a believer can never be disappointed and there will always be a way out of all the problems.
Allah also said that he does not put any person in any trial beyond his ability of endurance (refer Al Quran 2:286). This gives strength to a person that he can still withstand the difficulties and problems he is dealing with.
3️⃣ Self-aggression or guilt
There are few who do not have control over their emotions where, in a fit of anger or through guilt they go up to the extent of committing suicide. However, individuals with such emotions should repent and try to correct their actions without dwelling on the past.
As Allah says:
“Except for those who repent, believe and do righteous work. For them Allah will replace their evil deeds with good. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.” (Quran 25:70)
Even after the above-mentioned encouragement, support, and guidance if an individual still commits suicide and pushes their family and loved ones into despair and pain over their loss then, he is liable for Allah’s punishment and severe anger.
As Allah says:
“And whoever does that in aggression and injustice – then We will drive him into a Fire. And that, for Allah, is [always] easy.” (Quran 4:30)
 The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said, “He who commits suicide by throttling shall keep on throttling himself in the hell-fire (forever) and he who commits suicide by stabbing himself shall keep on stabbing himself in the Hell-Fire.” (Sahih al-Bukhari 1365)
Therefore, Islam not only forbids suicide but, also provides guidance for those inflicted under such thoughts and warns of harsh punishment for those who commit such an act.
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